New paper on Railway Digital Twins and Artificial Intelligence

Tuesday, September 13th, 2022

We are pleased to announce that the paper entitled “Railway Digital Twins and Artificial Intelligence: Challenges and Design Guidelines“, whose main author is LNU student Ruth Dirnfeld, has been published on the Springer book of proceedings of the AI4RAILS workshop. We congratulate Ruth for her second international publication, which demonstrates her capability to develop novel and interesting contributions. The work has been carried on within the RAILS EU funded research project.

Book cover

Two CPS-group papers accepted for publication by a prestigious Elsevier journal and a top IEEE conference

Friday, May 22nd, 2020

In the last few weeks, we started to reap the benefits of our hard work with two good news. The paper entitled “Safety Integrity Through Self-Adaptation for Multi-Sensor Event Detection: Methodology and Case-Study” (with Stefano MarroneRoberto NardoneMauro Caporuscio and Mirko D’Angelo) has been accepted with minor revisions by Future Generation Computer Systems (Elsevier, IF: 5.768), while the paper entitled “Low-Power Wide-Area Networks in Intelligent Transportation: Review and Opportunities for Smart-Railways” (with Ruth DirnfeldStefano MarroneRoberto Nardone and Valeria Vittorini) has been accepted for presentation at the 23rd IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, i.e., the top event on intelligent transportation.

#railsproject #safety #its #iot #autonomousvehicles #smart #railways




UPDATE JUNE 27th 2020

FGCS paper finally online at:


Members of the CPS group involved in developing a national-level cybersecurity course

Sunday, March 8th, 2020

The proposal for development of Module C11 “Cyber Security, Industrial Data Protection and Data Integrity” by host institution Mälardalen University in cooperation with Linnaeus University (CPS research group: Francesco Flammini – project leader, and Ola Flygt), RISE and several industry representatives from Combitech, Bombardier Transportation and Westermo, has been accepted for funding within the Civilingenjör4.0 initiative (Industry 4.0 – Cyber-physical production systems and connected industry).

Further information at:


(image source: Wikimedia Commons)

Track leader at ESREL2020-PSAM15

Thursday, August 15th, 2019

ESREL2020-PSAM15 combines the 30th European Safety and Reliability Conference and the 15th Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management Conference, and will be held in Venice, Italy, on June 21–26, 2020. It will be a unique World Exposition (a real “Expo Tech”) of scientific methodologies and technical solutions for the reliable design and operation of components and systems, for the prevention and management of risk in complex systems and critical infrastructures.

Francesco Flammini has been invited to be the Track Leader (TL) to coordinate the peer review process for the papers submitted to the track “Smart Devices and Systems Reliability” for the ESREL2020-PSAM15 Conference.

As a Track Leader he will act like guest editor in the reviewing process for the specific track. In this role he will;

  • assign reviewers to the papers submitted to the track
  • provide feedback to the authors
  • take the final decision on the acceptance/rejection of the paper.

For more information about the conference – visit the conference website.

Research on intelligent cybersecurity at IEEE SMC 2019

Monday, July 29th, 2019

The paper entitled “A Review of Intelligent Cybersecurity with Bayesian Networks” (Mauro Pappaterra, Francesco Flammini) has been accepted for conference presentation and publication in the proceedings of the 2019 IEEE SMC international conference, i.e. the flagship event of the  IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics society, special session on Homeland Security: Tools and Methodologies.

The paper will be presented by master student Mauro Pappaterra, who has been granted registration costs and travel expenses by the Department of Computer Science and Media Technology.



Cybersecurity threats have surged in the past decades. Experts agree that conventional security measures will soon not be enough to stop the propagation of more sophisticated and harmful cyberattacks. Recently, there has been a growing interest in mastering the complexity of cybersecurity by adopting methods borrowed from Artificial Intelligence (AI) in order to support automation. In this paper, we provide a brief survey and some hints about Bayesian Network applications to intelligent cybersecurity in order to enable quantitative threat assessment for superior risk analysis and situation awareness.

See also:



UPDATE, August 20th 2019

Mauro has also been selected as “Student or Young Professional Travel Grant Winner” for the SMC 2019 conference.


UPDATE, October 7th 2019

A picture of Mauro’s presentation:


UPDATE, December 2nd 2019

The paper is finally available from IEEE Digital Library at the following link:


Plain text citation:

M. J. Pappaterra and F. Flammini, “A Review of Intelligent Cybersecurity with Bayesian Networks,” 2019 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (SMC), Bari, Italy, 2019, pp. 445-452.
doi: 10.1109/SMC.2019.8913864
URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=8913864&isnumber=8913838

Pioneering research on Virtual Coupling published on top IEEE journal

Wednesday, July 24th, 2019

The paper entitled “ERTMS/ETCS Virtual Coupling: Proof of Concept and Numerical Analysis”, describing a pioneering research developed in cooperation between LNU and the University of Naples Federico II, has been accepted for publication on the top journal about smart-transportation, i.e. “IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems”.

The paper can be accessed online from the following link:




Railway infrastructure operators need to push their network capacity up to their limits in high-traffic corridors. Virtual coupling is considered among the most relevant innovations to be studied within the European Horizon 2020 Shift2Rail Joint Undertaking as it can drastically reduce headways and thus increase the line capacity by allowing to dynamically connect two or more trains in a single convoy. This paper provides a proof of concept of Virtual coupling by introducing a specific operating mode within the European rail traffic management system/European train control system (ERTMS/ETCS) standard specification, and by defining a coupling control algorithm accounting for time-varying delays affecting the communication links. To that aim, we define one ploy to enrich the ERTMS/ETCS with Virtual coupling without changing its working principles and we borrow a numerical analysis methodology used to study platooning in the automotive field. The numerical analysis is also provided to support the proof of concept with quantitative results in a case-study simulation scenario.

Talk: Towards Secure Architectural Adaptation at SEAMS 2019

Sunday, May 26th, 2019

A few of our researchers are now in Montreal, Canada for SEAMS 2019 (Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems 2019 conference). The objective of SEAMS is to bring together researchers and practitioners from diverse areas to investigate, discuss, and examine the fundamental principles, the state of the art, and critical challenges of engineering self-adaptive and self-managing systems.

On Sunday May 26th, Narges Khakpour will give a presentation of the paper entitled Towards Secure Architectural Adaptation (authored by: Narges Khakpour, Charilaos Skandylas, Goran Saman Nariman, and Danny Weyns), accepted for publication in the book of proceedings of the conference.

As any software system, a self-adaptive system is subject to security threats. However, applying self-adaptation may introduce additional threats. So far, little research has been devoted to this important problem. In this paper, we propose an approach for vulnerability analysis of architecture-based adaptations in self-adaptive systems using threat modeling and analysis techniques. To this end, we specify components’ vulnerabilities and the system architecture formally and generate an attack model that describes the attacker’s strategies to attack the system when adaptation is applied by exploiting different vulnerabilities. We use a set of security metrics to quantitatively assess the security risks of adaptations based on the produced attack model which enables the system to consider security aspects while choosing an adaptation to apply to the system. We automate and incorporate our approach into the Rainbow framework, allowing for secure architectural adaptations at runtime. To evaluate the effectiveness of our approach, we apply it on a simple document storage system and on the ZNN system.

For more information please click here.

DisCoRail 2019 – International Workshop on Distributed Computing in Future Railway Systems

Wednesday, April 17th, 2019

DisCoRail 2019 is a satellite workshop of DisCoTec 2019, held on June 17, 2019 in Lyngby, Denmark. Francesco Flammini, Linnæus University, is invited as a speaker and will give a talk on Towards Railway Virtual Coupling.

DisCoTec gathers several conferences and workshops that cover a broad spectrum of distributed computing subjects, ranging from theoretical foundations and formal description techniques to systems research issues. The aim of the DisCoRail’19 workshop is to discuss the following topics

  • how distributed computing has changed, and will even more change, the particular domain of railway signaling and train control systems
  • how formal techniques can help to address problems arising from this change.

For more information about DisCoRail 2019, see the conference website.

The final technical program is now available at this link.

//Diana Unander


Update June 17th



Slides of the presentation:


Picture from the talk:

IEEE SMC’19 October 6-9, 2019 – Bari, Italy

Wednesday, March 6th, 2019

IEEE SMC 2019 is the annual premier conference of the IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society. It represents an international forum for researchers and practitioners to report up-to-the-minute innovation and development, summarize state-of-the-art, and exchange ideas and advances in all aspects of systems science and engineering, human machine systems, and cybernetics.

The theme of the conference is Industry 4.0 and we would like to pay attention to two of the events that Francesco Flammini is the co-organizer for. More information about all the special sessions.

“Symbiotic Autonomous Systems in Smart-Cities and Industry 4.0”, one-day tutorial

Read more on: SMC2019_T8

“Homeland Security: Tools and Methodologies” This special session will bring experts, practitioners and researchers together with the aim to present and discuss all type of innovation related to Homeland Security applications. Expected contributions for this special session will range from the analysis and modelling of all-hazard threats to risk prevention/mitigation strategies and intelligence solutions based on Big Data and OSINT analysis, and from cyber-security of IT, IoT and OT systems to consequence analyses based on simulations or serious games.

Important deadlines:
March 31, 2019: deadline for paper submission
June 7, 2019: notification of paper acceptance/rejection
July 7, 2019: deadline for final camera-ready papers.


Pictures taken from the Tutorial on Symbiotic Autonomous Systems

Pictures taken from the Special Session on Homeland Security


Welcome to the new CPS-blog

Tuesday, March 5th, 2019

We have decided to start a new blog so that we can keep you updated on what is going on within the research group for Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) at Linnaeus University, this gives us a chance to share more information and smaller news than by only using the lnu-website. In order for this to be an active platform we like you to help us creating the information flow. Let us know what you would like to hear more about!